Print this page
8858 /usr/bin/grep doesn't support -E option
4580 /usr/bin/grep can't handle multibyte characters
8929 8868 tests are not delivered with system/test/utiltest
8860 Example in grep(1) is incorrect
Reviewed by: Peter Tribble <peter.tribble@gmail.com>
Reviewed by: Toomas Soome <tsoome@me.com>
Reviewed by: Yuri Pankov <yuripv@gmx.com>
   1 '\" te
   2 .\" Copyright 1989 AT&T
   3 .\" Copyright (c) 2006, Sun Microsystems, Inc.  All Rights Reserved
   4 .\" Portions Copyright (c) 1992, X/Open Company Limited  All Rights Reserved
   5 .\" Sun Microsystems, Inc. gratefully acknowledges The Open Group for permission to reproduce portions of its copyrighted documentation. Original documentation from The Open Group can be obtained online at
   6 .\" http://www.opengroup.org/bookstore/.
   7 .\" The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers and The Open Group, have given us permission to reprint portions of their documentation. In the following statement, the phrase "this text" refers to portions of the system documentation. Portions of this text are reprinted and reproduced in electronic form in the Sun OS Reference Manual, from IEEE Std 1003.1, 2004 Edition, Standard for Information Technology -- Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX), The Open Group Base Specifications Issue 6, Copyright (C) 2001-2004 by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc and The Open Group. In the event of any discrepancy between these versions and the original IEEE and The Open Group Standard, the original IEEE and The Open Group Standard is the referee document. The original Standard can be obtained online at http://www.opengroup.org/unix/online.html.
   8 .\"  This notice shall appear on any product containing this material.
   9 .\" The contents of this file are subject to the terms of the Common Development and Distribution License (the "License").  You may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
  10 .\" You can obtain a copy of the license at usr/src/OPENSOLARIS.LICENSE or http://www.opensolaris.org/os/licensing.  See the License for the specific language governing permissions and limitations under the License.
  11 .\" When distributing Covered Code, include this CDDL HEADER in each file and include the License file at usr/src/OPENSOLARIS.LICENSE.  If applicable, add the following below this CDDL HEADER, with the fields enclosed by brackets "[]" replaced with your own identifying information: Portions Copyright [yyyy] [name of copyright owner]
  12 .TH FGREP 1 "May 3, 2013"
  13 .SH NAME
  14 fgrep \- search a file for a fixed-character string
  15 .SH SYNOPSIS
  16 .LP
  17 .nf
  18 \fB/usr/bin/fgrep\fR [\fB-bcHhilnqsvx\fR] \fB-e\fR \fIpattern_list\fR [\fIfile...\fR]
  19 .fi
  20 
  21 .LP
  22 .nf
  23 \fB/usr/bin/fgrep\fR [\fB-bcHhilnqsvx\fR] \fB-f\fR \fIfile\fR [\fIfile...\fR]
  24 .fi
  25 
  26 .LP
  27 .nf
  28 \fB/usr/bin/fgrep\fR [\fB-bcHhilnqsvx\fR] \fIpattern\fR [\fIfile...\fR]
  29 .fi
  30 
  31 .LP
  32 .nf
  33 \fB/usr/xpg4/bin/fgrep\fR [\fB-bcHhilnqsvx\fR] \fB-e\fR \fIpattern_list\fR [\fB-f\fR \fIfile\fR]
  34      [\fIfile...\fR]
  35 .fi
  36 
  37 .LP
  38 .nf
  39 \fB/usr/xpg4/bin/fgrep\fR [\fB-bcHhilnqsvx\fR] [\fB-e\fR \fIpattern_list\fR] \fB-f\fR \fIfile\fR
  40      [\fIfile...\fR]
  41 .fi
  42 
  43 .LP
  44 .nf
  45 \fB/usr/xpg4/bin/fgrep\fR [\fB-bcHhilnqsvx\fR] \fIpattern\fR [\fIfile...\fR]
  46 .fi
  47 
  48 .SH DESCRIPTION
  49 .sp
  50 .LP
  51 The \fBfgrep\fR (fast \fBgrep\fR) utility searches files for a character string
  52 and prints all lines that contain that string. \fBfgrep\fR is different from
  53 \fBgrep\fR(1) and from \fBegrep\fR(1) because it searches for a string, instead
  54 of searching for a pattern that matches an expression. \fBfgrep\fR uses a fast
  55 and compact algorithm.
  56 .sp
  57 .LP
  58 The characters \fB$\fR, \fB*\fR, \fB[\fR, \fB^\fR, |, \fB(\fR, \fB)\fR, and
  59 \fB\e\fR are interpreted literally by \fBfgrep\fR, that is, \fBfgrep\fR does
  60 not recognize full regular expressions as does \fBegrep\fR. These characters
  61 have special meaning to the shell. Therefore, to be safe, enclose the entire
  62 \fIstring\fR within single quotes (\fBa\'\fR).
  63 .sp
  64 .LP
  65 If no files are specified, \fBfgrep\fR assumes standard input. Normally, each
  66 line that is found is copied to the standard output. The file name is printed
  67 before each line that is found if there is more than one input file.
  68 .SH OPTIONS
  69 .sp
  70 .LP
  71 The following options are supported for both \fB/usr/bin/fgrep\fR and
  72 \fB/usr/xpg4/bin/fgrep\fR:
  73 .sp
  74 .ne 2
  75 .na
  76 \fB\fB-b\fR\fR
  77 .ad
  78 .RS 19n
  79 Precedes each line by the block number on which the line was found. This can be
  80 useful in locating block numbers by context. The first block is 0.
  81 .RE
  82 
  83 .sp
  84 .ne 2
  85 .na
  86 \fB\fB-c\fR\fR
  87 .ad
  88 .RS 19n
  89 Prints only a count of the lines that contain the pattern.
  90 .RE
  91 
  92 .sp
  93 .ne 2
  94 .na
  95 \fB\fB-e\fR \fIpattern_list\fR\fR
  96 .ad
  97 .RS 19n
  98 Searches for a \fIstring\fR in \fIpattern-list\fR. This is useful when the
  99 \fIstring\fR begins with a \fB\(mi\fR\&.
 100 .RE
 101 
 102 .sp
 103 .ne 2
 104 .na
 105 \fB\fB-f\fR \fIpattern-file\fR\fR
 106 .ad
 107 .RS 19n
 108 Takes the list of patterns from \fIpattern-file\fR.
 109 .RE
 110 
 111 .sp
 112 .ne 2
 113 .na
 114 \fB\fB-H\fR\fR
 115 .ad
 116 .RS 19n
 117 Precedes each line by the name of the file containing the matching line.
 118 .RE
 119 
 120 .sp
 121 .ne 2
 122 .na
 123 \fB\fB-h\fR\fR
 124 .ad
 125 .RS 19n
 126 Suppresses printing of files when searching multiple files.
 127 .RE
 128 
 129 .sp
 130 .ne 2
 131 .na
 132 \fB\fB-i\fR\fR
 133 .ad
 134 .RS 19n
 135 Ignores upper/lower case distinction during comparisons.
 136 .RE
 137 
 138 .sp
 139 .ne 2
 140 .na
 141 \fB\fB-l\fR\fR
 142 .ad
 143 .RS 19n
 144 Prints the names of files with matching lines once, separated by new-lines.
 145 Does not repeat the names of files when the pattern is found more than once.
 146 .RE
 147 
 148 .sp
 149 .ne 2
 150 .na
 151 \fB\fB-n\fR\fR
 152 .ad
 153 .RS 19n
 154 Precedes each line by its line number in the file. The first line is 1.
 155 .RE
 156 
 157 .sp
 158 .ne 2
 159 .na
 160 \fB\fB-q\fR\fR
 161 .ad
 162 .RS 19n
 163 Quiet. Does not write anything to the standard output, regardless of matching
 164 lines. Exits with zero status if an input line is selected.
 165 .RE
 166 
 167 .sp
 168 .ne 2
 169 .na
 170 \fB\fB-s\fR\fR
 171 .ad
 172 .RS 19n
 173 Legacy equivalent of \fB-q\fR.
 174 .RE
 175 
 176 .sp
 177 .ne 2
 178 .na
 179 \fB\fB-v\fR\fR
 180 .ad
 181 .RS 19n
 182 Prints all lines except those that contain the pattern.
 183 .RE
 184 
 185 .sp
 186 .ne 2
 187 .na
 188 \fB\fB-x\fR\fR
 189 .ad
 190 .RS 19n
 191 Prints only lines that are matched entirely.
 192 .RE
 193 
 194 .SH OPERANDS
 195 .sp
 196 .LP
 197 The following operands are supported:
 198 .sp
 199 .ne 2
 200 .na
 201 \fB\fIfile\fR\fR
 202 .ad
 203 .RS 8n
 204 Specifies a path name of a file to be searched for the patterns. If no
 205 \fIfile\fR operands are specified, the standard input will be used.
 206 .RE
 207 
 208 .SS "/usr/bin/fgrep"
 209 .sp
 210 .ne 2
 211 .na
 212 \fB\fIpattern\fR\fR
 213 .ad
 214 .RS 11n
 215 Specifies a pattern to be used during the search for input.
 216 .RE
 217 
 218 .SS "/usr/xpg4/bin/fgrep"
 219 .sp
 220 .ne 2
 221 .na
 222 \fB\fIpattern\fR\fR
 223 .ad
 224 .RS 11n
 225 Specifies one or more patterns to be used during the search for input. This
 226 operand is treated as if it were specified as \fB-e\fR \fIpattern_list\fR.
 227 .RE
 228 
 229 .SH USAGE
 230 .sp
 231 .LP
 232 See \fBlargefile\fR(5) for the description of the behavior of \fBfgrep\fR when
 233 encountering files greater than or equal to 2 Gbyte ( 2^31 bytes).
 234 .SH ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
 235 .sp
 236 .LP
 237 See \fBenviron\fR(5) for descriptions of the following environment variables
 238 that affect the execution of \fBfgrep\fR: \fBLC_COLLATE\fR, \fBLC_CTYPE\fR,
 239 \fBLC_MESSAGES\fR, and \fBNLSPATH\fR.
 240 .SH EXIT STATUS
 241 .sp
 242 .LP
 243 The following exit values are returned:
 244 .sp
 245 .ne 2
 246 .na
 247 \fB\fB0\fR\fR
 248 .ad
 249 .RS 5n
 250 If any matches are found
 251 .RE
 252 
 253 .sp
 254 .ne 2
 255 .na
 256 \fB\fB1\fR\fR
 257 .ad
 258 .RS 5n
 259 If no matches are found
 260 .RE
 261 
 262 .sp
 263 .ne 2
 264 .na
 265 \fB\fB2\fR\fR
 266 .ad
 267 .RS 5n
 268 For syntax errors or inaccessible files, even if matches were found.
 269 .RE
 270 
 271 .SS "/usr/xpg4/bin/fgrep"
 272 .sp
 273 
 274 .SH ATTRIBUTES
 275 .sp
 276 .LP
 277 See \fBattributes\fR(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:
 278 .sp
 279 .TS
 280 box;
 281 c | c
 282 l | l .
 283 ATTRIBUTE TYPE  ATTRIBUTE VALUE
 284 _
 285 CSI     Enabled
 286 .TE
 287 
 288 .SH SEE ALSO
 289 .sp
 290 .LP
 291 \fBed\fR(1), \fBegrep\fR(1), \fBgrep\fR(1), \fBsed\fR(1), \fBsh\fR(1),
 292 \fBattributes\fR(5), \fBenviron\fR(5), \fBlargefile\fR(5), \fBXPG4\fR(5)
 293 .SH NOTES
 294 .sp
 295 .LP
 296 Ideally, there should be only one \fBgrep\fR command, but there is not a single
 297 algorithm that spans a wide enough range of space-time tradeoffs.
 298 .sp
 299 .LP
 300 Lines are limited only by the size of the available virtual memory.
 301 .SS "/usr/xpg4/bin/fgrep"
 302 .sp
 303 .LP
 304 The \fB/usr/xpg4/bin/fgrep\fR utility is identical to \fB/usr/xpg4/bin/grep\fR
 305 \fB-F\fR (see \fBgrep\fR(1)). Portable applications should use
 306 \fB/usr/xpg4/bin/grep\fR \fB-F\fR.




   1 '\" te
   2 .\" Copyright 1989 AT&T
   3 .\" Copyright (c) 2006, Sun Microsystems, Inc.  All Rights Reserved
   4 .\" Portions Copyright (c) 1992, X/Open Company Limited  All Rights Reserved
   5 .\" Sun Microsystems, Inc. gratefully acknowledges The Open Group for permission to reproduce portions of its copyrighted documentation. Original documentation from The Open Group can be obtained online at
   6 .\" http://www.opengroup.org/bookstore/.
   7 .\" The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers and The Open Group, have given us permission to reprint portions of their documentation. In the following statement, the phrase "this text" refers to portions of the system documentation. Portions of this text are reprinted and reproduced in electronic form in the Sun OS Reference Manual, from IEEE Std 1003.1, 2004 Edition, Standard for Information Technology -- Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX), The Open Group Base Specifications Issue 6, Copyright (C) 2001-2004 by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc and The Open Group. In the event of any discrepancy between these versions and the original IEEE and The Open Group Standard, the original IEEE and The Open Group Standard is the referee document. The original Standard can be obtained online at http://www.opengroup.org/unix/online.html.
   8 .\"  This notice shall appear on any product containing this material.
   9 .\" The contents of this file are subject to the terms of the Common Development and Distribution License (the "License").  You may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
  10 .\" You can obtain a copy of the license at usr/src/OPENSOLARIS.LICENSE or http://www.opensolaris.org/os/licensing.  See the License for the specific language governing permissions and limitations under the License.
  11 .\" When distributing Covered Code, include this CDDL HEADER in each file and include the License file at usr/src/OPENSOLARIS.LICENSE.  If applicable, add the following below this CDDL HEADER, with the fields enclosed by brackets "[]" replaced with your own identifying information: Portions Copyright [yyyy] [name of copyright owner]
  12 .TH FGREP 1 "Nov 28, 2017"
  13 .SH NAME
  14 fgrep \- search a file for a fixed-character string
  15 .SH SYNOPSIS
  16 .LP
  17 .nf
  18 \fB/usr/bin/fgrep\fR [\fB-bcHhilnqsvx\fR] \fB-e\fR \fIpattern_list\fR [\fB-f\fR \fIfile\fR]















  19      [\fIfile...\fR]
  20 .fi
  21 
  22 .LP
  23 .nf
  24 \fB/usr/bin/fgrep\fR [\fB-bcHhilnqsvx\fR] [\fB-e\fR \fIpattern_list\fR] \fB-f\fR \fIfile\fR
  25      [\fIfile...\fR]
  26 .fi
  27 
  28 .LP
  29 .nf
  30 \fB/usr/bin/fgrep\fR [\fB-bcHhilnqsvx\fR] \fIpattern\fR [\fIfile...\fR]
  31 .fi
  32 
  33 .SH DESCRIPTION

  34 .LP
  35 The \fBfgrep\fR (fast \fBgrep\fR) utility searches files for a character string
  36 and prints all lines that contain that string. \fBfgrep\fR is different from
  37 \fBgrep\fR(1) and from \fBegrep\fR(1) because it searches for a string, instead
  38 of searching for a pattern that matches an expression. \fBfgrep\fR uses a fast
  39 and compact algorithm.
  40 .sp
  41 .LP
  42 The characters \fB$\fR, \fB*\fR, \fB[\fR, \fB^\fR, |, \fB(\fR, \fB)\fR, and
  43 \fB\e\fR are interpreted literally by \fBfgrep\fR, that is, \fBfgrep\fR does
  44 not recognize full regular expressions as does \fBegrep\fR. These characters
  45 have special meaning to the shell. Therefore, to be safe, enclose the entire
  46 \fIstring\fR within single quotes (\fBa\'\fR).
  47 .sp
  48 .LP
  49 If no files are specified, \fBfgrep\fR assumes standard input. Normally, each
  50 line that is found is copied to the standard output. The file name is printed
  51 before each line that is found if there is more than one input file.
  52 .SH OPTIONS

  53 .LP
  54 The following options are supported:

  55 .sp
  56 .ne 2
  57 .na
  58 \fB\fB-b\fR\fR
  59 .ad
  60 .RS 6n
  61 Precedes each line by the block number on which the line was found. This can be
  62 useful in locating block numbers by context. The first block is 0.
  63 .RE
  64 
  65 .sp
  66 .ne 2
  67 .na
  68 \fB\fB-c\fR\fR
  69 .ad
  70 .RS 6n
  71 Prints only a count of the lines that contain the pattern.
  72 .RE
  73 
  74 .sp
  75 .ne 2
  76 .na
  77 \fB\fB-e\fR \fIpattern_list\fR\fR
  78 .ad
  79 .RS 6n
  80 Searches for a \fIstring\fR in \fIpattern-list\fR. This is useful when the
  81 \fIstring\fR begins with a \fB\(mi\fR\&.
  82 .RE
  83 
  84 .sp
  85 .ne 2
  86 .na
  87 \fB\fB-f\fR \fIpattern-file\fR\fR
  88 .ad
  89 .RS 6n
  90 Takes the list of patterns from \fIpattern-file\fR.
  91 .RE
  92 
  93 .sp
  94 .ne 2
  95 .na
  96 \fB\fB-H\fR\fR
  97 .ad
  98 .RS 6n
  99 Precedes each line by the name of the file containing the matching line.
 100 .RE
 101 
 102 .sp
 103 .ne 2
 104 .na
 105 \fB\fB-h\fR\fR
 106 .ad
 107 .RS 6n
 108 Suppresses printing of files when searching multiple files.
 109 .RE
 110 
 111 .sp
 112 .ne 2
 113 .na
 114 \fB\fB-i\fR\fR
 115 .ad
 116 .RS 6n
 117 Ignores upper/lower case distinction during comparisons.
 118 .RE
 119 
 120 .sp
 121 .ne 2
 122 .na
 123 \fB\fB-l\fR\fR
 124 .ad
 125 .RS 6n
 126 Prints the names of files with matching lines once, separated by new-lines.
 127 Does not repeat the names of files when the pattern is found more than once.
 128 .RE
 129 
 130 .sp
 131 .ne 2
 132 .na
 133 \fB\fB-n\fR\fR
 134 .ad
 135 .RS 6n
 136 Precedes each line by its line number in the file. The first line is 1.
 137 .RE
 138 
 139 .sp
 140 .ne 2
 141 .na
 142 \fB\fB-q\fR\fR
 143 .ad
 144 .RS 6n
 145 Quiet. Does not write anything to the standard output, regardless of matching
 146 lines. Exits with zero status if an input line is selected.
 147 .RE
 148 
 149 .sp
 150 .ne 2
 151 .na
 152 \fB\fB-s\fR\fR
 153 .ad
 154 .RS 6n
 155 Legacy equivalent of \fB-q\fR.
 156 .RE
 157 
 158 .sp
 159 .ne 2
 160 .na
 161 \fB\fB-v\fR\fR
 162 .ad
 163 .RS 6n
 164 Prints all lines except those that contain the pattern.
 165 .RE
 166 
 167 .sp
 168 .ne 2
 169 .na
 170 \fB\fB-x\fR\fR
 171 .ad
 172 .RS 6n
 173 Prints only lines that are matched entirely.
 174 .RE
 175 
 176 .SH OPERANDS

 177 .LP
 178 The following operands are supported:
 179 .sp
 180 .ne 2
 181 .na
 182 \fB\fIfile\fR\fR
 183 .ad
 184 .RS 8n
 185 Specifies a path name of a file to be searched for the patterns. If no
 186 \fIfile\fR operands are specified, the standard input will be used.
 187 .RE
 188 












 189 .ne 2
 190 .na
 191 \fB\fIpattern\fR\fR
 192 .ad
 193 .RS 8n
 194 Specifies one or more patterns to be used during the search for input. This
 195 operand is treated as if it were specified as \fB-e\fR \fIpattern_list\fR.
 196 .RE
 197 
 198 .SH USAGE

 199 .LP
 200 See \fBlargefile\fR(5) for the description of the behavior of \fBfgrep\fR when
 201 encountering files greater than or equal to 2 Gbyte ( 2^31 bytes).
 202 .SH ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES

 203 .LP
 204 See \fBenviron\fR(5) for descriptions of the following environment variables
 205 that affect the execution of \fBfgrep\fR: \fBLC_COLLATE\fR, \fBLC_CTYPE\fR,
 206 \fBLC_MESSAGES\fR, and \fBNLSPATH\fR.
 207 .SH EXIT STATUS

 208 .LP
 209 The following exit values are returned:
 210 .sp
 211 .ne 2
 212 .na
 213 \fB\fB0\fR\fR
 214 .ad
 215 .RS 5n
 216 If any matches are found
 217 .RE
 218 
 219 .sp
 220 .ne 2
 221 .na
 222 \fB\fB1\fR\fR
 223 .ad
 224 .RS 5n
 225 If no matches are found
 226 .RE
 227 
 228 .sp
 229 .ne 2
 230 .na
 231 \fB\fB2\fR\fR
 232 .ad
 233 .RS 5n
 234 For syntax errors or inaccessible files, even if matches were found.
 235 .RE
 236 



 237 .SH ATTRIBUTES

 238 .LP
 239 See \fBattributes\fR(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:
 240 .sp
 241 .TS
 242 box;
 243 c | c
 244 l | l .
 245 ATTRIBUTE TYPE  ATTRIBUTE VALUE
 246 _
 247 CSI     Enabled
 248 .TE
 249 
 250 .SH SEE ALSO

 251 .LP
 252 \fBed\fR(1), \fBegrep\fR(1), \fBgrep\fR(1), \fBsed\fR(1), \fBsh\fR(1),
 253 \fBattributes\fR(5), \fBenviron\fR(5), \fBlargefile\fR(5), \fBXPG4\fR(5)
 254 .SH NOTES

 255 .LP
 256 Ideally, there should be only one \fBgrep\fR command, but there is not a single
 257 algorithm that spans a wide enough range of space-time tradeoffs.
 258 .sp
 259 .LP
 260 Lines are limited only by the size of the available virtual memory.


 261 .LP
 262 The \fB/usr/bin/fgrep\fR utility is identical to \fB/usr/bin/grep\fR
 263 \fB-F\fR (see \fBgrep\fR(1)). Portable applications should use
 264 \fB/usr/bin/grep\fR \fB-F\fR.
 265 .LP
 266 In the past the behavior of \fB/usr/xpg4/bin/fgrep\fR and
 267 \fB/usr/bin/fgrep\fR utilities was different. Now \fB/usr/bin/fgrep\fR
 268 is replaced by \fB/usr/xpg4/bin/fgrep\fR.