fgrep - search a file for a fixed-character string
/usr/bin/fgrep [-bcHhilnqsvx] -e pattern_list [-f file]
/usr/bin/fgrep [-bcHhilnqsvx] [-e pattern_list] -f file
/usr/bin/fgrep [-bcHhilnqsvx] pattern [file...]
) utility searches files for a character
string and prints all lines that contain that string. fgrep
different from grep
(1) and from egrep
(1) because it searches for
a string, instead of searching for a pattern that matches an expression.
uses a fast and compact algorithm.
The characters $
, |, (
are interpreted literally by fgrep
, that is, fgrep
does not recognize full regular expressions as does egrep
characters have special meaning to the shell. Therefore, to be safe, enclose
the entire string
within single quotes (a´
If no files are specified, fgrep
assumes standard input. Normally, each
line that is found is copied to the standard output. The file name is printed
before each line that is found if there is more than one input file.
The following options are supported:
Precedes each line by the block number on
which the line was found. This can be useful in locating block numbers by
context. The first block is 0.
Prints only a count of the lines that contain
Searches for a string in
pattern-list. This is useful when the string begins with a
Takes the list of patterns from
Precedes each line by the name of the file
containing the matching line.
Suppresses printing of files when searching
Ignores upper/lower case distinction during
Prints the names of files with matching lines
once, separated by new-lines. Does not repeat the names of files when the
pattern is found more than once.
Precedes each line by its line number in the
file. The first line is 1.
Quiet. Does not write anything to the standard
output, regardless of matching lines. Exits with zero status if an input line
Legacy equivalent of -q.
Prints all lines except those that contain the
Prints only lines that are matched
The following operands are supported:
Specifies a path name of a file to be searched
for the patterns. If no file operands are specified, the standard input
will be used.
Specifies one or more patterns to be used
during the search for input. This operand is treated as if it were specified
as -e pattern_list.
(5) for the description of the behavior of fgrep
encountering files greater than or equal to 2 Gbyte ( 2^31 bytes).
(5) for descriptions of the following environment variables
that affect the execution of fgrep
, and NLSPATH
The following exit values are returned:
If any matches are found
If no matches are found
For syntax errors or inaccessible files, even
if matches were found.
(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:
Ideally, there should be only one grep
command, but there is not a single
algorithm that spans a wide enough range of space-time tradeoffs.
Lines are limited only by the size of the available virtual memory.
utility is identical to /usr/bin/grep -F
(1)). Portable applications should use /usr/bin/grep
In the past the behavior of /usr/xpg4/bin/fgrep
utilities was different. Now /usr/bin/fgrep
is replaced by