USERADD(1M) Maintenance Commands USERADD(1M)


useradd - administer a new user login on the system


useradd [-A authorization [,authorization...]]
[-b base_dir] [-c comment] [-d dir] [-e expire]
[-f inactive] [-g group] [-G group [,group]...]
[-K key=value] [-m [-z|-Z] [-k skel_dir]] [-p projname]
[-P profile [,profile...]] [-R role [,role...]]
[-s shell] [-u uid [-o]] login

useradd -D [-A authorization [,authorization...]]
[-b base_dir] [-s shell [-k skel_dir]] [-e expire]
[-f inactive] [-g group] [-K key=value] [-p projname]
[-P profile [,profile...]] [-R role [,role...]]



useradd adds a new user to the /etc/passwd and /etc/shadow and /etc/user_attr files. The -A and -P options respectively assign authorizations and profiles to the user. The -R option assigns roles to a user. The -p option associates a project with a user. The -K option adds a key=value pair to /etc/user_attr for the user. Multiple key=value pairs may be added with multiple -K options.

useradd also creates supplementary group memberships for the user ( -G option) and creates the home directory (-m option) for the user if requested. The new login remains locked until the passwd(1) command is executed.


Specifying useradd -D with the -s, -k,-g, -b, -f, -e, -A, -P, -p, -R, or -K option (or any combination of these options) sets the default values for the respective fields. See the -D option, below. Subsequent useradd commands without the -D option use these arguments.


The system file entries created with this command have a limit of 2048 characters per line. Specifying long arguments to several options can exceed this limit.


useradd requires that usernames be in the format described in passwd(4). A warning message is displayed if these restrictions are not met. See passwd(4) for the requirements for usernames.

To change the action of useradd when the traditional login name length limit of eight characters is exceeded, edit the file /etc/default/useradd by removing the # (pound sign) before the appropriate EXCEED_TRAD= entry, and adding it before the others.


The following options are supported:
-A authorization
One or more comma separated authorizations defined in auth_attr(4). Only a user or role who has grant rights to the authorization can assign it to an account.
-b base_dir
The base directory for new login home directories (see the -d option below. When a new user account is being created, base_dir must already exist unless the -m option or the -d option is also specified.
-c comment
Any text string. It is generally a short description of the login, and is currently used as the field for the user's full name. This information is stored in the user's /etc/passwd entry.
-d dir
The home directory of the new user. It defaults to base_dir/account_name, where base_dir is the base directory for new login home directories and account_name is the new login name.
Display the default values for group, base_dir, skel_dir, shell, inactive, expire, proj, projname and key=value pairs. When used with the -g, -b, -f, -e, -A, -P, -p, -R, or -K options, the -D option sets the default values for the specified fields. The default values are:
other (GID of 1)
key=value (pairs defined in user_attr(4)
not present
-e expire
Specify the expiration date for a login. After this date, no user will be able to access this login. The expire option argument is a date entered using one of the date formats included in the template file /etc/datemsk. See getdate(3C).
If the date format that you choose includes spaces, it must be quoted. For example, you can enter 10/6/90 or October 6, 1990. A null value ( " ") defeats the status of the expired date. This option is useful for creating temporary logins.
-f inactive
The maximum number of days allowed between uses of a login ID before that ID is declared invalid. Normal values are positive integers. A value of 0 defeats the status.
-g group
An existing group's integer ID or character-string name. Without the -D option, it defines the new user's primary group membership and defaults to the default group. You can reset this default value by invoking useradd -D -g group. GIDs 0-99 are reserved for allocation by the Solaris Operating System.
-G group
An existing group's integer ID or character-string name. It defines the new user's supplementary group membership. Duplicates between group with the -g and -G options are ignored. No more than NGROUPS_MAX groups can be specified. GIDs 0-99 are reserved for allocation by the Solaris Operating System.
-K key=value
A key=value pair to add to the user's attributes. Multiple -K options may be used to add multiple key=value pairs. The generic -K option with the appropriate key may be used instead of the specific implied key options ( -A, -P, -R, -p). See user_attr(4) for a list of valid key=value pairs. The "type" key is not a valid key for this option. Keys may not be repeated.
-k skel_dir
A directory that contains skeleton information (such as .profile) that can be copied into a new user's home directory. This directory must already exist. The system provides the /etc/skel directory that can be used for this purpose.
-m [-z|-Z]
Create the new user's home directory if it does not already exist. If the directory already exists, it must have read, write, and execute permissions by group, where group is the user's primary group. CHANGE_ZFS_FS option in /etc/default/useradd file determines if ZFS filesystem will be created for new user. If this option is set to yes and parent directory of user's home directory is ZFS filesystem mount point, a new ZFS filesystem is created. -z and -Z options allow overwrite default behavior. If -z option is specified, useradd tries to create new file system for user. If -Z option is specified, new file system is not created.
This option allows a UID to be duplicated (non-unique).
-P profile
One or more comma-separated execution profiles defined in prof_attr(4).
-p projname
Name of the project with which the added user is associated. See the projname field as defined in project(4).
-R role
One or more comma-separated execution profiles defined in user_attr(4). Roles cannot be assigned to other roles.
-s shell
Full pathname of the program used as the user's shell on login. It defaults to an empty field causing the system to use /bin/sh as the default. The value of shell must be a valid executable file.
-u uid
The UID of the new user. This UID must be a non-negative decimal integer below MAXUID as defined in <sys/param.h>. The UID defaults to the next available (unique) number above the highest number currently assigned. For example, if UIDs 100, 105, and 200 are assigned, the next default UID number will be 201. UIDs 0-99 are reserved for allocation by the Solaris Operating System.

















See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:
Interface Stability Committed


passwd(1), profiles(1), roles(1), users(1B), groupadd(1M), groupdel(1M), groupmod(1M), grpck(1M), logins(1M), pwck(1M), userdel(1M), usermod(1M), getdate(3C), auth_attr(4), passwd(4), prof_attr(4), project(4), user_attr(4), attributes(5)


In case of an error, useradd prints an error message and exits with a non-zero status.

The following indicates that login specified is already in use:


UX: useradd: ERROR: login is already in use. Choose another.


The following indicates that the uid specified with the -u option is not unique:


UX: useradd: ERROR: uid uid is already in use. Choose another.


The following indicates that the group specified with the -g option is already in use:


UX: useradd: ERROR: group group does not exist. Choose another.


The following indicates that the uid specified with the -u option is in the range of reserved UIDs (from 0-99):


UX: useradd: WARNING: uid uid is reserved.


The following indicates that the uid specified with the -u option exceeds MAXUID as defined in <sys/param.h>:


UX: useradd: ERROR: uid uid is too big. Choose another.


The following indicates that the /etc/passwd or /etc/shadow files do not exist:


UX: useradd: ERROR: Cannot update system files - login cannot be created.



The useradd utility adds definitions to only the local /etc/group, etc/passwd, /etc/passwd, /etc/shadow, /etc/project, and /etc/user_attr files. If a network name service such as NIS or NIS+ is being used to supplement the local /etc/passwd file with additional entries, useradd cannot change information supplied by the network name service. However useradd will verify the uniqueness of the user name (or role) and user id and the existence of any group names specified against the external name service.
April 16, 2013